Social movements are a form of collective action that is organized and sustained to fight for social justice. The term ‘social movement’ can encompass everything from the civil rights movement, which sought to eliminate racial segregation in America, to the environmentalist movement which tries to make people more aware of their effect on the environment. This post will explore what social movements are all about-definitions, examples, theories, and history.
What is the Definition of Social Movements?
Social movements are defined as people who share the same goal and use social movement tactics to achieve this goal. Social movements can be organized around many different topics, but some have been very popular in recent years, such as environmentalism, feminism, civil rights, LGBTQ+, anti-war sentiment.
These movements were not always prevalent. They have come about because society has evolved, and issues like these have become major priorities for people in the United States.
What Are Different Theories of Social Movements?
Different theories exist to explain social movement theory. There are a few main ones, including functionalism, conflict theory, and collective behavior. These theories try to explain why people decide to join movements in the first place, what type of members they will be attracted to, and what type of movements will be most successful in accomplishing their goals.
Functionalism is a social theory that views society as a system of interconnected parts and acts to maintain order. These parts include institutions, organizations, norms, values, and individuals.
All actors within these systems must contribute in some way to keep the system running correctly. Social movements can disrupt this balance by bringing attention to issues or problems facing society. When a disruption occurs, the social system is forced to reorganize and bring change.
Social movements can also be defined as collective actions done to gain equal rights for members of society who have been previously excluded, whether they were discriminated against.
Sometimes, members of society may want to feel like they belong, especially if they think their voices are not heard. This is the idea behind another theory of social movements called collective behavior. People may join a movement because they want to feel like they can speak out and make some of the change in society.
Collective Behavior Theory
Collective behavior theory is another social theory that describes people who work collectively to achieve a common goal. They do not believe in the idea of using violence or force to get their point across but instead use non-violent methods such as protests and strikes.
This theory relates heavily to social movements because they involve large groups of people for a common cause. Social movements effectively bring attention to specific issues and may even change public policy or laws.
What is Deprivation Theory?
Deprivation theory is a type of social movement theory that explains the differences in movements between countries. This mainly has to do with incomes and the level of development that takes place within society.
Developed countries face different issues than undeveloped countries, affecting how people decide to organize and create social movements.
Social Movements Around the World
Social movements have been around since pretty much the beginning of time. Most movements start because people are not satisfied with the way certain things are in society, whether for political, financial, or religious reasons.
Over time these social changes gain momentum and become quite popular among members of society until they reach a climax point resulting in some change in that society.
Social movements are one of the most powerful forces in history, as they have helped to change the meaning and values of our world today drastically. It takes a lot of effort and dedication to start these movements, but it is also gratifying when their hard work finally pays off.
Without social movements, we wouldn’t be where we are today. Social movements can be the catalyst for change and bring about new ideas to better our world as a whole.
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Social Movements Timeline
Many different social movements have been formed throughout history, each with its own unique goals and objectives. Some of them could just be considered regular everyday protests that occur when people are upset about something happening in their city or country.
However, the way they go about organizing and making changes is still considered a social movement.
Below is a list of some of the significant movements throughout history and their effect on our world today.
Social Movements-The Renaissance
The Renaissance was an enlightening movement that took place in the 14th and 15th centuries. It was a time of new ideas and inventions and a time for innovation when many people could think freely.
This led to creating such things as universities, scientific advances, and great works of literature. Since this period was so enlightening, it would make sense that it would have a tremendous impact on society.
Social Movements-The Feminist Movement
The equal rights of women have been a hot topic for many years. This is most likely because in the past, women, although treated better than some other races during the Colonial Era, have never been considered to be equal and treated as such by society in general.
Women had specific jobs that were not characterized very well. They could not vote and were often not even thought of as a person. Since this time, women have strived to gain equality in society.
They started groups such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) that fought and ultimately changed many laws regarding women’s rights.
Social Movements-The Gay Rights Movement
Gay rights are also another hot topic in today’s society, as many people claim that their rights should be the same as heterosexuals. This is one of those issues that has been around for a while but gained even more momentum in recent years.
The first gay rights organization was started back in 1924 by Henry Gerber, an American communist, who addressed concerns regarding homosexuality and lobbied for the improvement of gay rights.
Since this period, many organizations have been founded, and in 2003, the Supreme Court ruled that same-sex marriage was legal, which sure has made many people happy.
Social Movements-The Civil Rights Movement
This is one movement that everyone should be familiar with as it was, and still is, quite a significant event. It is still ongoing as we speak and has been for centuries.
The Civil Rights Movement was started by black Americans when they were fed up with the unfair treatment they received from whites in our country. A lot of this had to do with segregation and discrimination, which led to sit-ins and marches, which eventually led to some good societal changes.
What Are Social Movement Organizations?
Social movement organizations are a part of social movements that often play an essential role in promoting change. For example, the NAACP was formed as a response to the ill-treatment of African-Americans, and it is still active today. These types of organizations serve many roles, including bringing attention to causes, mobilizing people, and giving them a chance to express their opinions. The NAACP was most successful in promoting change because it had a strong organization that can mobilize large groups of people and a good leader like Martin Luther King Jr.
What Are the Main Features of Social Movement?
There are several main features of a social movement. These include:
– A social movement is an organized group or collective of people who gather together under an idea, cause, or belief they want to see come into fruition in society. They may protest and rally for change and sometimes even develop tactics that can be violent if they feel it’s necessary.
– A social movement is also a cultural change where people’s views or beliefs in a particular group or place will be different from the way it was before. For example, during periods of war like World War II, many people had to deal with rationing food and supplies, which created different lifestyles for those used to having plenty all the time.
– A social movement can also be a political change where the system may need to be altered somehow, or those who govern would have to come into power for some type of change. It could also mean that laws or existing regulations will have to be changed based on the beliefs and goals of a group of supporters.
Who is the Father of Classical Theory?
The father of classical theory is Karl Marx. He was a German philosopher and political economist from Trier, Germany. Marx’s theories on social change proposed that society progresses through economic systems defined by class struggle. This would result in a communist society free of conflict and scarcity, with no division between owners and workers.
What is Classical Movement Theory?
The classical theory is an approach used to describe the changes in society where society will pass through specific stages. It was coined by Karl Marx and modified by other thinkers, adding to it as they went along. The classical theory can be broken down into various stages, and these include:
– Feudalism is the first stage in most societies where there will be people who have a lot of power and those who don’t have any at all. Those people with power are usually wealthy landowners, while those without it might work for them or maybe live off what they have.
– Capitalism is the second stage where a free market for goods and services is created, resulting in capital accumulation by private owners grouped into the bourgeoisie. This system creates strict social divides, which can cause tension and conflict among different people.
Socialism is the third stage that separates workers from raw materials to destroy relationships between classes. This is when the state will own public property and industries for the common good of all people. They also plan other social institutions that will improve society by making everyone equal in rights and opportunities.
– Communism is the last stage where there may not be anything like money, property, or status left because they’re no longer needed. Since everyone would be equal, there wouldn’t be a need for conflict, and those who used to be rich may not have any advantages compared to the more impoverished people anymore.
What is the Difference Between Social Movements and Social Change?
Social movements happen at a particular time or place as a reaction to different social circumstances. They occur when individuals want to create change because they don’t like what’s happening in their society. This can be brought about by new laws being passed, shifts in governmental control, or even technological changes.
What Are Some Examples of Successful Social Movements?
Newer social movements had tended to be more successful than old ones, especially since the 1960s when people were fighting against the Vietnam War and their rights during different protests.
Other examples include those that react to environmental issues or those who want to protect animals. There have also been successful social movements in foreign countries based on racial and ethnic identity issues and larger political groups.
What Has Made Social Movements More Successful?
Social movements are often more successful when they include social media and the Internet. However, social media may cut into social movements because there is a lot of misinformation that gets spread around as well, making it difficult to believe everything you see online.
Another reason social movements have created change is the ability to raise money for social change. This can be done through social capital, which is the social relations with individuals who help a social movement succeed.
What Happens When Social Movements Fail?
If social movements fail, they sometimes evolve into a social revolution if people are so angry that they fight back against those in power. If a social movement fails after having been successful for a while, then social movements won’t be as successful in the future.
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What Are the Problems Associated with Social Movements?
Today’s social movements are a significant threat to social order in that they often challenge social norms and change social values. They will continue to be successful if people feel that there is not enough social control and other reasons.
Some social revolutions involve war, which can result in mass violence and social disorder. Social movements can raise social issues that are not being dealt with, but some social values have to be kept in place to maintain social order in society.
How Does Social Movements Cause Change in Society?
There are several different ways that social movements can cause a change in society. They often use non-violent means like protests and rallies to gather together to make their voice heard. These changes can be more radical and happen more quickly, especially in certain types of countries.
Social movements have also successfully promoted media coverage, where the media helps spread important messages and debates on significant issues.
They are also successful when there is a lot of unity among people to create change. With all these factors combined, social movements can effectively influence the public and their opinion about specific issues or even policies put into place by different governments or organizations.
Who Are the Classical Theorists?
There are many different kinds of social movements studied and written about, which is why there are several “classical theorists.” These include Karl Marx, known for his writings on the working class and how they interacted.
He also wrote about the division in society, which he believed would eventually happen due to different factions being pitted against each other. To change society, he advised that it should be done through a violent revolution.
Another theorist is Emile Durkheim, who wrote about how social movements in the United States were made up of smaller groups. He also focused on joining certain types of institutions and associations that had nothing to do with religion or politics.
These studies focused on why people joined different associations and how these groups of individuals helped shape society.
What Are the 4 Types of Crowds?
The four different types of crowds are classified according to the amount of time they spend getting organized and the level of strength or weakness they have. The social movement literature identifies four main categories: a crowd, a bandwagon, a movement, and an insurgency.
1. Crowd – This group can form in just minutes and is usually made up of people already close to each other in a social setting. They also have very little planning, which means that they don’t spend much time formulating plans and coming together for only one purpose or reason.
These types of crowds can express feelings of anger or frustration toward an issue but don’t usually go very far because they lack the planning and leadership that is needed to be successful. This type of crowd gives no warning of what they plan to do, making them hard to predict or control.
2. Bandwagon – A bandwagon is a social movement where people are motivated by their belief that others will support it. They usually keep a social movement because they want to seem like the accepted thing to do, giving them a sense of belonging.
Once the bandwagon starts moving, it can be hard to stop, which is why many people end up supporting these types of movements unthinkingly. However, it has been used to express their feelings on an issue in society for others. These movements can be compelling, but they are usually short-lived if there is no other reason to continue further than the bandwagon mentality.
3. Movement – By definition, a movement is more organized and has a longer life span than just being a crowd or bandwagon. This type of social movement forms when people have a sense of urgency and purpose in what they are doing.
This is usually fueled by the belief that the cause is worth fighting for, which gives them a feeling of validation and support. These movements can last for many years and become part of everyday life, which means that it takes more effort to destroy than to continue a movement in place. These types of movements usually have organization, leadership, and a framework to help them grow.
4. Insurgency – The last type of social movement is the insurgency, which takes on a more organized effort to bring about change in society by using force to take control of it. This type of social movement occurs when people are motivated to bring about radical change for a cause they feel strongly about.
Since these types of movements can be hazardous and threatening, the government often tries to suppress them by using military force to stop them from taking power and making changes.
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What Are Some Examples of Social Movements?
There have been many social movements throughout history, some of which were successful and failed miserably. Successful movements include the civil rights movement under Martin Luther King Jr., the suffragette movement for women’s right to vote in America during the early 20th century, and peaceful protests supporting animal rights.
Failed social movements include violent revolutions like Vladimir Lenin’s Bolshevik Revolution, the Nazi’s rise to power in Germany, and the violent Arab Spring protests in Egypt.
1. The Women’s Suffrage Movement – In 1903, a group of women from England that were frustrated with their lack of rights formed the organization known as Society for Promoting Working Women’s Franchise. This is considered one of the first attempts to create a women’s social movement in the 20th century.
However, it took another 50 years before women attained the right to vote in Britain and many other countries worldwide.
2. The Civil Rights Movement – This social movement became prominent during the 1950s with leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. He was a Baptist preacher and activist that helped lead protests and sit-ins during the struggle of African Americans to gain equal rights.
Martin Luther King Jr.’s famous “I Have A Dream” speech at the 1963 March on Washington was one of his first significant speeches and a prime example of what social movements are all about. It was this type of movement that helped give momentum to the civil rights legislation that followed.
3. Animal Rights Movement – This movement gained popularity in the 1970s with people trying to make a difference by protesting for animal rights and welfare.
These movements usually began as a grassroots campaign organized through social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube videos, and e-mail campaigns. These groups do not have official leaders or representatives, allowing them to stay decentralized and avoid being taken down by a government crackdown.
4. Violent Revolutions – Throughout history, the most successful social movements were non-violent, while more prominent revolutions that used violence either failed or had very little success in achieving their goals.
One of the biggest violent revolutions in history was in 1917 when Lenin led a communist revolution in Russia that caused him to be known as “the father of the nation.” However, this revolution failed, and he was forced into exile.
Another example of violent social movements is the Nazi party in Germany under Hitler’s leadership. Still, even his movement was unable to stay in power after losing World War II, which ultimately led to the fall of his regime in Germany. In Egypt, the Arab Spring protests were led by ousted president Mubarak, but these failed after he was ousted from office.
5. Protests – Many types of social movements must be considered non-violent, including protests and strikes. These are popular ways to conduct a social movement without having to resort to violence. The Civil Rights Movement was mainly led by a series of non-violent protests and marches, which eventually led to some critical civil rights legislation.
6. Strikes – Strikes are also non-violent actions used during social movements. These widespread protests have been around for decades and typically take place in factories or other workplaces where employees walk off the job.
7. Boycott – Another tactic frequently used by social activists is to boycott certain products or a business altogether. This has been an effective way for people to make a statement about their frustration with something while still avoiding violence and still influencing their cause. This was recently done in May of 2012 when more than 1,000 women from 20 different countries participated in a boycott of the Miss World Pageant.
8. Work-to-Rule – This tactic involves workers in a workplace refusing to do any work that is not required by their job description. For example, if someone was working on an assembly line and their job title needs them to put a specific number of screws into a piece, they would not do any extra work, such as putting in more than the required amount. This is a common tactic that has been used throughout history by factory workers to protest unfair labor practices.
9. Guerilla art – Artists have also been known to use their talents to make political statements with guerilla art. Such examples include in the early 1990s when an artist drew a 10-meter hole in the ground outside of Tate Gallery and said that it would be filled with water to prevent people from drowning when they fell into it. This is just one example of how artists can make a statement about their cause without resorting to violence.
10. Mock trials – Another type of non-violent protest is to hold a mock test where dissidents will act like they are in court and elect someone to play the role of a judge while the rest act as the jury.
They will then pass sentences on their target, whether a public figure or politician, which is often done using satirical methods such as passing a death sentence by chocolate. This type of protest is popular among school-age children who want to make a point without violence.
11. Civil disobedience – Also known as non-violent resistance, this type of social movement involves people practicing civil disobedience. They publicly violate laws but do so only when they think it’s necessary.
The goal is to get people in power to change the law or get rid of it entirely. One example of this method being used came from Henry David Thoreau. He refused to pay his taxes since he did not believe that the government was using them responsibly and instead felt that they were funding many destructive wars.
12. Peaceful protests – Peaceful protests are often used to get people in power to change their ways. This is done by demonstrating how protesters will peacefully express their frustration and anger but never resort to violence.
One example of this happened in the late 1960s when many peaceful protests took place when anti-war activists wanted President Lyndon B. Johnson to stop the war in Vietnam. These protests often included hippies who were opposed to the government, and they had many peaceful demonstrations that included sit-ins, teach-ins, and marches.
13. Pranks – Similar to holding a mock trial is staging a prank where activists use humor and satire as a way of getting their point across. One of the most famous examples of this happened during World War I when 14 anti-war activists who were members of a group called The No-Conscription Fellowship staged a hoax bombing at the house of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer.
This was an attempt to show that they no need to serve in World War I since plenty of others were willing to do it.
14. Flash mobs – A new phenomenon that has been gaining popularity in recent years is the flash mob, which is often used to bring attention to a cause or issue. One example of this happened when activists stood outside and handed out free flowers on Valentine’s Day with a sign that said, “Why to wait until Valentine’s Day?”
The purpose was to show that people shouldn’t need an occasion like Valentine’s Day to express their love for one another.
15. Alternative tourism – This is when activists use tourism as a means of protesting against something. One example of this type of protest happened when the organization Sea Shepherd used their boat called the My Starbucks Sinks to protest against deforestation. By using tourism as a method of protesting, activists can get their message across while also spending a vacation in an exotic location.
16. Picket line – A picket line is when activists use a public area to stand outside and try to persuade people to join their cause. This is often done by handing out free or discounted items while chanting slogans that support their cause.
One example of this happened in 2008 when the non-profit organization called Invisible Children staged a picket line at the San Diego Comic-Con to get more young people involved in stopping Joseph Kony and his Lord’s Resistance Army from kidnapping children.
17. Street theatre – This is when activists use street theater as a means of protesting against something. One example of this happened in 2003 where 500 protesters who were opposed to the war in Iraq staged a mock wedding while dressing up like soldiers and using fake flowers to show their desire for peace.
Some of these methods may seem strange or unusual, but they show that there’s a lot more creativity in activism than many people realize.
Activism has been around as long as human beings have been living together in communities. Without activism, people in power would abuse their authority and continue enforcing unjust laws that were against the rights of others.
For example, suppose an activist did not step forward and show us how bad things were during the Holocaust. In that case, Hitler could have continued to systematically exterminate Jewish people without anyone ever hearing about it or stepping up to make him stop. This is why activism is so important and has had such a massive impact on the course of history.
What Causes Collective Behavior?
Several factors can trigger collective behavior. One example is conformity, which happens when people within a group feel the need to go along with what others do so things don’t become awkward between them.
Another factor is social influence, such as when activists try to persuade others to join their cause or boycott a product. There are also conformity pressures that can cause people to give in and conform to something they disagree with so that they don’t stand out and risk facing possible ridicule from others who may see them as different.
Collective behavior can also be caused by persuasion when someone uses logic or facts to get someone to do something.
Suppose the person being persuaded doesn’t have an interest in a particular issue. In that case, they could decide that whatever is being presented to them is false and ignore it, or if they are unsure about what to believe, their decisions could be swayed by those that stand up and try to talk them into doing something.
What Are Six Factors That Stimulate Social Change?
Six factors stimulate social change, and these include the following:
* Protest actions – When a group of people holds up signs or banners to make their voices heard.
* Agitate conflict – This happens when one group tries to disturb another group as a way of making them angry and get them to take action against what they are doing. For example, if a group of people was on the street selling drugs and another group of people decided to march in front of them carrying signs that read “legalize all drugs.” They would be agitating conflict as part of their method for trying to influence others.
* Unions – This happens when workers band together with a common goal.
* Non-profit organizations – These are non-governmental groups set up to create social change.
* Media coverage – The media is used as a tool for spreading information and starting new movements, and it often highlights issues that might not otherwise be common knowledge. For example, suppose the news reported on a group of students protesting about an unfair exam grade. In that case, more students could realize that they can also speak out if something doesn’t go their way in a similar situation.
* Celebration – This occurs when people come together and celebrate the progress they have managed to make towards reaching a goal.
How Can You Develop a Quality Movement?
Four different elements must be in place for a group or community to develop into a quality movement. These include the following:
* Focus – This refers to having something specific to promote and push. It helps ensure that energy stays focused on reaching goals instead of being spread too thin among many different issues.
* Sense of urgency – This is a feeling that there is a need for swift change, but it also needs to be balanced by having realistic goals.
* Solidarity – This happens when people take personal responsibility for the actions and choices of others within their movement.
* Diversity – This refers to the active recruitment of people from different backgrounds and to make sure that everyone feels welcome.
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Are You Protected from Arrest by The First Amendment?
The United States Constitution makes it so that you are protected from arrest by the first amendment, which is a law that protects free speech and freedom of expression. However, if you’re disruptive and blocking others from doing their jobs, then you may face arrest and have to deal with fines that need to be paid.
The first amendment applies to:
* Students in schools – You are protected from any punishment for the comments or drawings that you make about a teacher, but there are some exceptions, such as if your actions disrupt the classroom. This means that you are not protected if you make defamatory statements or put information about the teacher online that is libelous.
Which Are the Advantages of Social Movements?
Several advantages come from social movements, and they include the following:
* They help improve working conditions – Many times, movements focus on getting people to work together to force businesses or other groups to change their policies. For example, if a group of workers goes on strike, then they can often get better wages and benefits by making the employer realize that other people are willing to take their place.
* They protect civil rights – This occurs when groups work together to remove discrimination against certain people or communities, such as women and minorities. For example, with the civil rights movement of the 1960s, a strong emphasis was placed on racial equality.
* They can create change – Movements can influence changes that are both big and small. For instance, if a group of students work together and manage to convince the school board to cancel a new dress code policy, then they have managed to cause real change in an area where it was previously not allowed.
Why is Social Activism Important?
Social activism is essential because it promotes equality and fairness throughout society, and it helps to ensure that people are not mistreated or marginalized.
For example, suppose a group of people comes together to protest military action by the government. In that case, they can help change laws so that soldiers won’t have to undergo harm when going overseas.
There are several different types of social activism, and these include the following:
* Passive – This refers to people who don’t take action but are indifferent to the issues at hand. For example, if a group of students decides not to read a book by an author, they choose passive as long as their actions have no real effect on anyone else.
What is the Best Role of Social Activism?
The best role of social activism is to work towards progressive change. This means that the movement will focus on creating fundamental, positive changes to live better lives.
For example, if you choose to protest a new law being passed, your efforts will be in vain if you don’t do anything more than show up. Instead, it is essential to be organized in your efforts and make sure that you have a plan that will pressure the authorities or whoever else can change things for the better.
What is Max Weber Theory?
Weber’s theory is about the relationship between social structure, cultural values, and the economy. He argued that one of the traditional functions of a charismatic leader was to endow mundane actions with religious meaning.
Weber took this idea further to suggest that groups can motivate people by giving their particular definition or “sociology” to mundane, daily activities. The three main elements of social action are:
Locus of control – Where the actor believes that external factors determine their outcomes or internal factors.
Social Action – whether they view members of society as interdependent or independent.
Causality – Whether one views life events as being caused by chance (or fate), by powerful others, or by one’s abilities.
Note: All men are socialized to be an independent and internal locus of control. Women generally have a more interdependent and external locus of control as they focus on the needs of their families and children.
Most people are taught that we live in an “open” society where the government and media have the interests of the governed in mind. However, many people believe that large corporations, upper-class individuals, and even our own elected officials don’t always have everyone’s best interest at heart. Therefore, there was a growing belief that change must come from within “we the people” to be long-lasting and effective.
What is Collective Behavior?
Collective behavior is the spontaneous and self-organized activity of large numbers of people. Many different theories, including social identity theory, new institutionalism, resource mobilization theory, power structure research, and political economy, can be explained.
Theories help understand how and why certain behaviors occur at particular times; however, there are always many different explanations for the same behavior, making them difficult to test.
Historical theorists have raised several objections to Marx’s ideas on social change. One is that his theory of class struggle is overly deterministic, and another is that it is historically inaccurate as classes tend to form and dissolve reasonably quickly.
What is the Criticism in Max Weber Theory?
The first criticism comes from liberal democratic theorists who believe that Marx’s ideas of class conflict are too deterministic. They also claim that it is unlikely for the members of a specific class to act as Marx suggests they will for class conflict theory to function (i.e., middle and workers’ classes against capitalists).
Even if we accept Marx’s ideas about how different social classes interact, another criticism is that class conflict theory does not explain how social change happens. It simply explains why it will happen and what the consequences of this change will be.
Class conflict theorists also disagree with Marx on his ideas about the likely outcome of class conflict. For instance, some have suggested that Marxism leads to a form of totalitarianism.
When a party controls the government and works to improve the workers’ lives, it is typically through authoritarian means.
This causes many individuals from other classes to feel that they have been discriminated against or locked out by the new social order. Some may even choose to fight back in retaliation for these actions, leading to an escalation of violence and a totalitarian state.
This criticism also stems from the Russian revolution where Vladimir Lenin’s Bolshevik party took control of the government through revolution.
They later attempted to improve workers’ lives by passing laws that dictated what they could and couldn’t do (e.g., attempts to ban religion, control wages, etc.) This led many other individuals to feel oppressed as the government limited their freedom of choice and action.
This fear of people feeling oppressed within a capitalist society is another criticism that many critics have with Marx’s ideas on social change. In an article where he discusses this critique, Stephen Lukes states: “To be sure…there are various techniques of repression (coercion of individuals, physical control of movement, etc.), but none with the power to alter fundamentally social relations. Hence the temptation is to think that there must be a social force with such power, namely “the state.”
He continues by stating:
Thus, if Marx’s view of the inevitability and irreversibility of struggles for collective control of the production and distribution of goods is to be sustained, it must be because a very different conception of what the state is and does can provide grounds for such a belief.
This criticism essentially states that Marx fails to recognize that although capitalism has its problems, many aspects benefit people’s daily lives (e.g., consumers get a great deal of choice in what they buy).
As a result, many people may not want to give that up for the sake of collective control. They are essentially unable to see past their immediate wants to understand the long-term benefits for them and society as a whole (i.e., distribution of wealth and production of goods is more efficient).
Lukes also notes that the problems Class Conflict theorists see with society are not fixed by replacing one form of government. But if this is so, then it becomes difficult to sustain Marx’s claim that ruling classes will always and everywhere struggle against those who threaten their power.
It implies, on the contrary, that ruling classes will in some circumstances prefer to accommodate those who threaten them, just as they accommodated the bourgeoisie in 19th century England.”
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Social movements are a form of collective action that is organized and sustained to fight for social justice. The term ‘social movement’ can encompass everything from the civil rights movement, which sought to eliminate racial segregation in America, to the environmentalist movement which tries to make people more aware of their effect on the environment.
Social movements have been around since antiquity when they were used as a way for different groups within society- like slaves or women- to advocate for change through protest and demonstrations. In recent years this has taken shape in large scale protests including ‘Black Lives Matter’, ‘Me Too’ and ‘March for Our Lives’.
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