Chromatin

Chromatin Definitions, Functions and, Examples

Introduction

Chromatin is a combination of DNA and histone proteins that form the chromosomes in eukaryotic cells. Chromatin can be found throughout the cell but does not always have to be visible or spread out.

Chromosomes are made from long strands of chromatin coiled up into a bundle called a nucleosome. The function of chromatin is to package DNA to fit inside the nucleus while still accessing genes for transcription when necessary.

Chromatids are one part of each chromosome where two sister chromatids stay together during mitosis as they separate from each other during meiosis II. We’ll delve more into chromatins and related parts in this article. However, should you chose to skip this guide due to reasons such a busy schedule, our top writers for hire are ready to cover you by acing that assignment at an affordable rate. Just place an order and leave it to us!

What are Histones?

Histones are basic proteins that form nucleosomes and chromatin. The primary function of histones is to regulate DNA packaging, so it doesn’t become tangled or condensed.

There are four different types of histones: H-type, K-type, J- type, and L-type. H- type histones make up most of the structure, while K-, J-, and L- types are mainly found in the outer layer of chromatin.

These proteins called histones are versatile and can take many shapes and forms, depending on which function they need to perform.

They are mainly used in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and regulate how tightly DNA is packaged.

The type, shape, and location of a histone determine how tightly it will pack DNA, which in turn is what makes up the structure and function of chromatin.

Histones are also used in the outside layer of chromatin to bind with proteins and regulate which parts are accessible.

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What is a nucleosome?

Image: nucleosomes

A nucleosome is the basic building block of chromatin which is a combination of DNA and histones.

A nucleosome comprises two H-type histones and two of the corresponding type of DNA wrapped around it. This is what makes up a chromosome, which is made from long strands of chromatin coiled up into a bundle.

A nucleosome is what regulates how tightly DNA is packaged in the nucleus, and it has four different parts: the N-terminus, which is what binds with DNA; the O-helix of histones on one side; and two H-type histones on the opposite side.

As DNA is replicated, it becomes packaged more tightly and begins to form loops called nucleosomes.

Nucleosomes also have a unique way of regulating which parts are accessible by binding with proteins on the outside. This way, DNA can be accessed for transcription.

Functions of Chromatin

The main function of the chromatin is to package DNA so that it will fit inside the nucleus while still being able to access genes for transcription when necessary.

Chromatin helps regulate how tightly DNA is packaged in the nucleus. The type, shape, and location of a histone determine how tightly it will pack DNA, making up the structure and function of chromatin.

Other functions are:

Replication of DNA

DNA is replicated so it can be packaged more closely and form loops called nucleosomes. The replicated DNA ultimately becomes a chromatin.

DNA replication also occurs during meiosis II to make copies of the chromosomes.

When cells make a copy, they use an enzyme called DNA polymerase to unwind the strands of chromatin and copy it. This process forms a chromosome made from long strands of chromatin coiled up into a bundle called a nucleosome.

A chromosome is made from long strands of chromatin coiled up into a bundle called nucleosomes.

Genetic Recombination

Genetic recombination result from swapping different sections between chromosomes so they can combine and create new versions. This way, gene material is passed on and how humans get different traits.

Genes are pieces of DNA that code for proteins, which can be used in many ways to create different versions of a protein.

The recombination process results from swapping different sections between chromosomes so they can combine and create new versions.

For example, if a gene for eye color comes in two versions: blue-eyed and brown-eyed. The recombination process can swap the brown-eyed gene with a blue-eyed gene, which creates a new version of one eye color.

The recombination process is what makes humans so genetically diverse. Chromatin regulates which parts are accessible by binding with proteins.

DNA Repairs

The role of chromatins in these repairs is that the DNA is repaired in chromatin and then wrapped back up again. DNA repairs can be done with or without ribonucleotide reductase.

One of the main roles for chromatin is in DNA repairs to ensure that broken strands are swapped with intact ones to make new copies.

DNA repairs can be done with or without ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme that helps create nucleotides for DNA.

The enzyme helps create nucleotides to repair broken strands, enabling new copies to be made with intact strands in chromatin.

Cell Division

 

Image: cell division

Another function of chromatins in cell division is to help divide chromosomes into two cells after meiosis.

The cells divide to create two new cells with the same DNA as the cell before them, and it is done with chromatins.

Cell division occurs in meiosis II, and chromatins help divide chromosomes into the two cells that will form after meiosis.

The cells divide to create two new cells, identical in DNA to the cell before them. Chromatin helps package up these chromosomes into the two cells that will form after meiosis, and it is done with chromatins.

Transcription

Transcription is when the DNA translates into RNA, which can then be translated into proteins.

DNA goes through a transcription process to create an RNA molecule, which can then be translated into a protein.

DNA goes through this process called transcription to create an RNA molecule that is later translated into a protein. This occurs through an enzyme called RNA polymerase that moves along the DNA strands, unwinding them and transcribing their genetic information.

The enzyme RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA strands, records them and then rewinds them up again. It functions like a machine that unwinds the DNA and then transcribes it to RNA.

Regulating Gene Expression

The role of chromatin in regulating gene expression is to help control how much protein a cell can make.

Chromatin helps regulate the expression of genes in a cell by packaging the DNA into chromatin and wrapping it around proteins. Chromatin also helps to control how much protein a cell can make.

Packaging the DNA up into chromosomes wraps it up in these nice packages, so we have something to refer back to and make comparisons. Having the right material reference improves how genes are expressed in organisms throughout generations.

How the Different chromatin functions benefit Living Organisms

Organisms depend on various body processes for survival and multiplication. Chromatids perform many functions that make them essential for life.

Below are some of the benefits related to the chromatid functions:

DNA Replication

This process is essential for living organisms in many ways. They include;

  • Passing information from parent to offspring
  • Transmitting information about the environment
  • Protecting gene material when exposed to extreme temperatures and radiation.
  • Continuation of life after the death of an organism

DNA Repairs

Image: DNA repair

Repairing DNA is essential for living organisms because DNA transmits information from one generation to the next.

This process is also necessary for genes from being edited by enzymes that change the DNA sequence. It ensures that broken strands are swapped with intact ones so new copies can be made

Keeping the double-stranded nucleic acid in good shape ensures the health preservation of an individual organism.

Cell Division

During cell division, chromosomes are divided with the help of chromatids to form identical pairs. Each chromosome forms two others with the same characteristics.

The benefits of cell division include:

  • Facilitation of growth.-the organism can produce new cells until it reaches maturity.
  • Reproduction is dependent on cell division. The two new cells are identical in DNA to the cell before them, and this is facilitated with chromatins.
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The Role of Chromatin in the Mitosis Process

Mitosis is the process of cell division that is essential for life. Cellular reproduction keeps our cells alive, and it refers back to chromatin as its source. Mitosis can be done without having a nucleus with DNA to keep organisms from reproducing by themselves.

It happens during asexual reproduction when there are fewer chromosomes than would be required for sexual reproduction. Mitosis occurs in four steps:

Prophase

The first step of mitosis is prophase, which consists of three phases:

  • Prophase I
  • Metaphase II
  • Anaphase II

The first phase, prophase I, consists of the condensation and complete replication of chromosomes.

In metaphase II, the chromosomes are aligned along the equator of the cell.

Anaphase II is where two strands of each chromosome separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.

The two nuclei that result from prophase I are called daughter cells. The first phase, prophase I, consists of the condensation and complete replication of chromosomes.

In metaphase II, the chromosomes are aligned along the equator of the cell.

Anaphase II is where two strands of each chromosome separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. The two nuclei that result from prophase I are called daughter cells.

Image: asexual reproduction

Metaphase

Metaphase is the second step of mitosis, and it consists of two phases:

  • Metaphase I
  • Anaphase I

In metaphase I, the chromosomes are aligned along the equator of the cell.

Anaphase I is where two strands of each chromosome separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.

Anaphase

Anaphase is the third step of mitosis, and it consists of two phases:

  • Anaphase II
  • Telophase

In anaphase II, the chromosomes are aligned along the equator of the cell.

Telophase is where nuclear envelopes form around each of the daughter chromosomes. Nuclear envelopes are like protective shells for each chromosome from its original and now separated parent cell.

The nuclear envelopes are an essential function of mitosis because, without them, the chromosomes would not be protected, and they could break.

Telophase

Telophase is the fourth step of mitosis, and it consists of two phases:

  • Telophase I
  • Cytokinesis

In telophase I, the chromosomes are aligned along the equator of the cell. Cytokinesis is the last step of mitosis, and it is when the daughter chromosomes each divide into two individual cells.

At this point in an organism’s life, the cells are still connected by a nuclear membrane. Cytokinesis is what separates those two nuclei into two cells, which will then become two daughter cells.

The Two Types of Chromatins

The two types of chromatins found in the cell nucleus, where DNA transcription occurs, are light and heavy.

Light chromatin is known as Euchromatin, which helps genes be transcribed. Heavy chromatin is called heterochromatin, and it blocks access to DNA that would increase gene expression.

Euchromatin

Euchromatin is the type of chromatin that helps to transcribe DNA, which means it allows for easy transcription of genes.

The light-colored Euchromatic DNA allows for this easy transcription of genes, which has an important role in gene expression. Euchromatin is loosely packed, so it is easier for genes to be transcribed.

Functions

Image: gene transcription
  • Euchromatin helps in gene transcription, which is reading DNA and making a complementary RNA copy.
  • Euchromatin has an important role in gene expression.
  • It promotes cell growth and reproduction by allowing for easy access to genes that promote cell division.

Heterochromatin

Heterochromatin is the type of chromatin that blocks access to DNA, which increases gene expression. It is tightly packed, heavy colored and condensed chromatin hence blocking access to DNA. Heterochromatin is formed by the modification of histones and the introduction of certain complexes.

Functions

  • It blocks access to genes that would lead to increased gene expression.
  • The heterochromatic area helps protect against mutations and cancers by preventing excessive transcribing of certain genes.
  • This type of chromatin also has a role in DNA repair.

Relationship between Chromatin, Chromosome, and Chromatid

The relationship between chromatin, chromosome, and chromatid are that they are all intricately intertwined. Chromatin refers to the DNA and proteins that form the chromosome. Chromosomes are very long and carry all of our genetic information, where chromatids come into play.

Chromatids are the two identical strands of DNA that make up each chromosome; they have the same genes as one another but opposite orientations. Chromosomes are made up of chromatin, and they refer back to the chromosomes as their source for genetic information; these long strands of DNA come in pairs called chromatids.

Chromosomes are long strands that contain all of the genes we need to live, where chromatids are the two identical strands that make up each chromosome. These correspond to one another, but they have opposite orientations to be flipped around and compared to one another.

These long strands of DNA are made up of chromatin, which refers back to the chromosomes as their source for information.

In Conclusion

Chromatin is the material that makes up chromosomes and contains DNA. It can be found in eukaryotic cells, such as animal or plant cells. The three types of chromatin are heterochromatin, which is highly condensed but does not include any genes.

Euchromatin, which has genes and changes over time to form new proteins for the cell. Facultative heterochromatin (polychrome), which are regions with a high expression during certain developmental stages.

There’s much more to learn about chromatids and other terms and processes. The points discussed here should get you started on your research! In case you’re still in doubt, place an order and our top writers will be of help!

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